Yoga – The Path of Peace
In simple words, Yoga is the only path which leads any human being towards peace and right path. Yoga is such a practice, in which work is done to harmonize the mind, soul and body and to strengthen the emotions.
Yoga in particular is a spiritual self-control, which absorbs the full essence of the lifestyle and helps to calm and normalize the behavior by disciplining the mind and body.
Yoga is also a science, it brings unity between intellect, mind and body. Yoga is an art and science of efficient living. Yoga is highly practiced in our Indian culture.
Types of Yoga
There are mainly four types of yoga – Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga and Jnana Yoga.
Raja Yoga or Ashtanga Yoga
Raja Yoga is also known as Ashtanga Yoga. At the very beginning of this yoga, try to observe the disturbance in the mind and body by meditating. Pay attention to the mind, intellect, body and whatever is happening around. Try to think calmly on the activities and attitude of your thoughts. Just by trying to do this meditation, the mind will be calm and your thinking power will also become favorable.
There are eight parts of Raja Yoga – Yama (oath), Niyama (conduct-discipline), Asana (postures), Pranayama (breath control), Pratyahara (control of the senses), Dharana (concentration), Dhyana (meditation) and Samadhi (concentration). ecstasy or ultimate liberation).
Under Yoga, Maharishi Patanjali has described Ashtanga or Raja Yoga as follows – Yamaniyamasana Pranayama Pratyaharadharanadhyanasamadhayah.
1. Yama (Oath)
Yama is the prime of retirement. Maharishi Patanjali has mentioned the five limbs of Yama in the Yoga Sutras. This part is as follows –
- Ahimsa: Ahimsa means ‘not to punish’ or ‘not to kill’ i.e. not to hurt anyone physically or mentally. That is to say that no human being or living being should be harmed in any way by body, mind, deed, word and speech. Do not think of harming anyone in your mind, do not harm anyone even with harsh words etc. It is non-violence not to kill any living being, under any circumstances, even by action.
- Satya: Satya literally means sate hitam i.e. welfare of all. Only after imbibing this feeling of well-being in the heart can a person speak the truth. The hallmark of a true person is that he stands firm on his point of view without thinking about the present future. A true person’s human nature is characterized by a strong reverence for truth and hatred for falsehood.
Truth is the great power of this world. The practical thing about truth is that truth can be subverted but not defeated. There were many truthful personalities in India whose cry is given even today like Raja Harishchandra, Satyaveer Tejaji Maharaj etc. He had taken a vow during his lifetime that even if he lost his life, he would not leave the path of truth.
- Asteya: The literal meaning of Asteya is not to steal. It is considered a virtue in Hinduism and Jainism. In the context of yoga, Asteya is one of the five Yamas. The broad meaning of Asteya is not to steal and not to desire to steal someone else’s property by thought, word and deed.
- Brahmacharya: Brahmacharya is one of the fundamental pillars of yoga. Brahmacharya means to lead a sattvik life, to be full of auspicious thoughts, to meditate on the Lord and to attain knowledge. It is also the first ashram of the Vedic religion Varnashrama, according to which it is of the age of 0-25 years and after which the students have to receive education for future life.
Extraordinary knowledge can be obtained from Brahmacharya Vedic period and all the sages of present times have asked to follow it. Thousands of years from today, our sages have been doing penance for celibacy, because by following it we can get all the happiness of this world.
- Aparigraha: Aparigraha means refusal to donate, don’t take more than what is needed. In this yoga one gets freedom from the feeling of non-possession, the feeling of non-greedy or non-greedy and the feeling of possessiveness. This idea is mainly part of the Raja Yoga of Jainism and Hinduism. According to Jainism “Ahimsa and Aparigraha are the basis of life”. Aparigraha means not accumulating anything.
Ten types of Yama have been described by Shandilya Upanishad and Guru Gorakhnath’s disciple Swami Swatmaram Ji.
- Pardon : Forgiveness means the tendency to tolerate the offense without retribution or revenge, that is, to voluntarily end discrimination and anger towards someone for the crime or mistake committed by him.
The meaning of saying is that the feeling or attitude of the mind by which a person silently bears the sufferings caused by another, and does not allow any disorder in the mind towards the trouble maker.
- Dhriti: The literal meaning of Dhriti is – firmness of mind, patience, stamina, endurance. In all the texts of yoga, Dhriti is considered as one of the main Yamas. Manu has also given place to Dhriti among the ten characteristics of Dharma.
- Pity : The word mercy is used very widely in Hindi. It means sympathy, pity, compassion, sorrow for the misfortune of others, etc. Many scholars have given different definitions about mercy, Tulsidas ji says that mercy is the real religion. As long as there is mercy in the heart, then there is religion, in the absence of mercy there is no existence of religion.
- Arjav: Arjava is one of the ten Yamas. Its description is found in ancient Hindu and Jain texts. Its literal meaning is honesty, clarity, virtue, civility, honesty, simplicity, virtuousness, truthfulness, purity, simplicity, morality, etiquette etc.
- Diet: Mitahara means Mit + Diet i.e., eating less. It is a concept of yoga related to the quantity of food. Mitahara is one of the ten types of Yama. Mitahara has been discussed in more than 30 texts like Shandilya Upanishad, Gita, Dashkumarcharita and Hathayoga Pradipika etc. such as –
Brahmachari Mitahari Tyagi Yogaparayanah.
Abdadurdhvam Bhavedsidho Natra Karya Vicharana.
- Defecation: Upamalana means passing stool through the anus or anus. This is the final process of digestion. The frequency of adulteration by humans ranges from two-three times in 24 hours to two-four times in a week. The action of contraction takes place in the muscles of the intestines, due to which the stool and urine move towards the anus.
2. Rules (Conduct-Discipline)
In the context of yoga, the habits and actions or activities required for healthy living, spiritual enlightenment and attainment of salvation are called niyama.
The five rules mentioned in the Yogasutra by Maharishi Patanjali are as follows –
Shauch Santosh Tapa: Swadhyayeshwarpranidhanani Niyam: ।।
- Shaucha: Purification of physical and mental is called Shaucha, internal purification of body is possible through Shatkarma, purification of Brahman, mind, intellect and self is also possible through meditation.
- Santosh : To be satisfied and happy
- Tapas (Tapas): To be disciplined with oneself
- self-study: self-reflection
- Ishwar-pranidhana : One must have complete devotion, complete devotion to God
The ten principles of the rule mentioned in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika are as follows –
- God worship
- Theory listening
3. Postures (postures)
The literal meaning of asana is asanam according to the Sanskrit dictionary, to sit, the base of sitting, the special procedure of sitting, to sit down etc. In Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana Samadhi, this action has the third place, while in the Shadanga Yoga (six limbed yoga) promoted by Gorakshanathadi, the position of Asana is first. For the stability of the mind, for the firmness of the body and its parts, and for physical pleasure, the law of this action is found. The characteristics of asanas have been given in various texts – attainment of high health, firmness of body parts, help in subsequent activities like pranayama, stability of mind, giving physical and mental happiness etc.
In this yoga, the effect of duality also does not affect the body. The lecturers of Maharishi Patanjali have mentioned many distinctions (like Padmasana, Bhadrasana etc.). The description of these asanas is found in almost all Indian sadhana literature.
According to the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali,
(Meaning: Asana is the name of sitting comfortably in stability. Or, that which is stable and also soothing, that is, comfortable, is an asana.)
In this way we can conclude that asanas are those which can be done easily and have a special beneficial effect on our lifestyle.
4. Pranayama (breath control)
Tasmin sati breath-breathing yorgativichheda: pranayama: ।।
Pranayama = Prana + dimension. It literally means prolonging life or breathing or prolonging life force. Pranayama may mean controlling the breath to some extent. But the breath does not have to be reduced. The amplitude or expansion of prana or breath is called pranayama.
The important role of yoga is Pranayama, the pulse instrument and the regulation of breathing and exhalation for their awakening. Pranayama is very helpful for overcoming restlessness and disturbance of the mind.
5. Pratyahara (control of the senses)
When the senses turn in the opposite direction leaving the objects, it is called pratyahara. That is, the introversion of the extroversion of the senses is pratyahara. Pratyahara is necessary for the higher limbs of yoga, i.e. for dharana, dhyana and samadhi.
6. Perception (concentration)
The mind has to be focused and focused on the subject. One topic has to be kept in mind. That is, the act of tying the mind to a single thought is called dharana. The word is derived from the root ‘Dhri’. This is the sixth limb or step of Patanjali’s Ashtanga Yoga. A person named Woolf Messing did many experiments regarding perception.
7. Meditation or Meditation
Dhyana or Attention is a process of the conscious mind, in which a person concentrates his consciousness on a selected area or place in the external world, that is, meditation is the constant fixedness of the mind on any one place or object. When the mind becomes accustomed while contemplating the object, it is called meditation. Through meditation we bring the chosen subject to the mental plane with clarity and accuracy. In the state of complete meditation, the knowledge or memory of any other object does not enter the mind.
8. Samadhi (ecstasy or final liberation)
It is that state of mind in which the mind becomes completely engrossed in the contemplation of the object. Yoga philosophy considers attainment of salvation possible only through samadhi. The highest state of meditation is called samadhi. Its importance has been told in all religions like Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Yogi. There are also two categories of Samadhi: Sampragyat and Asamprajnata. Sampragyat samadhi is vitarka, thought, bliss and asmitanugat. In asamprajnata all tendencies of sattvik, rajas and tamas stop. That is, when the seeker is completely absorbed in the meditation of the subject and becomes aware of his existence, then he is said to be in samadhi. Samadhi is described as the eighth (final) state in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.
Karma means “action, action, action, action, labor or work”. No human can survive without doing karma. It is the natural instinct of man to act. Whatever we think, say or do has an effect, after which we get the reward at the right time. Our present actions determine our future.
There are two types of karma – sakam karma (actions for one’s own benefit) and nishkama karma (actions involving selflessness).
1. Sakam Karma (action for one’s own benefit)
The karma under which we desire the fruit of any action, it is called sakam karma and it is associated with the benefit of our social life.
If a living being follows fruitive action, then he gets entangled in the bondage of Maya, due to which his desires never end and he gets deviated from the path of liberation.
That is to say, fruitful action binds every living being in the bondage of life and death. This is the reason that we are unable to connect with the Supreme Power or Paramatma and get deviated from the path of the Supreme Power, that is why sakam karma is known as low grade karma.
2. Nishkaam Karma (deeds involving selflessness)
Work done without desire or desire, i.e. without worrying about the result, uninterested, selfless etc. That is, the person who dedicates all his desires and ambitions to God and continues to do his work, he is a Nishkaam Karmayogi.
The literal meaning of Bhakti is loyalty, passion, love, respect, worship, hospitality, reverence, faith, righteousness, truthfulness, accuracy, chastity, virtuousness. That is, when you have equal love for every living being, living being, tree etc. in the universe and protect them. Any living being can practice Bhakti Yoga.
There are three types of Bhakti yoga – Navadha Bhakti, Ragatmika Bhakti, Parabhakti.
1. Navadha Bhakti
9 types of devotion have been described in the Puranas, which are called Navadha Bhakti.
Shravana (Parikshit), Kirtan (Shukdev), Smarana (Prahlad), Padasevana (Lakshmi), Archan (Prithuraja), Vandan (Akrura), Dasya (Hanuman), Sakhya (Arjuna) and Atmannivedana (Bali king)
These 9 types of devotions have been mentioned through a verse. This verse is as follows –
Shravanam kirtanam visnoh smaranam padasevanam.
Archanam vandanam dasyam sakhyamatmanivedanam.
- Shravan (Parikshit): While doing devotion to God with all his heart, listening to God’s pastimes, His divine qualities, history, ancient texts, Puranas and stories continuously is Shravan Bhakti.
- Kirtan (Shukdev): To be colored in the color of one’s adoration, to be absorbed in his devotion, to sing his praises i.e. to do bhajan-kirtan is devotional kirtan.
- Remembrance (Prahlad): Remembering the Supreme Father, the Supreme Soul, becoming engrossed in Him, that is, remembering His pastimes and the teachings given by Him, is remembrance of devotion.
- Padasevan (Lakshmi): Having full faith in God, dedicate yourself at His feet, that is, to accept Him as your everything. Surrendering oneself at the feet of the Supreme Father, the Supreme Soul, with all the actions of one’s life, whether they are good or bad, is called Padasevan Bhakti.
- Archan (Prithuraja): Worshiping one’s adoration with pure, holy and pure material by deeds, by words and by mind is worship of worship.
- Vandana (Akrura): While serving the Acharyas, Brahmins, Gurus and one’s parents with God and consecrating life in the idol of one’s adoration, with complete devotion and sincere rituals, i.e. obeying the rules, worshiping with joy is the worship of devotion. it occurs.
- Dasya (Hanuman): Serving God as his master and considering yourself as his slave is slave devotion. like; Pawan’s son Hanuman ji worshiped his lord Shri Ram.
- Sakhya (Arjuna): Considering God as your supreme friend, presenting or accepting your virtues and your sins and surrendering yourself to God, is Sakhya Bhakti.
- Atmannivedana (Bali King): Surrendering oneself to the feet of God forever and having no independent existence of any kind, this state is called Atmannivedana or Introspection Bhakti. This bhakti is said to be the most perfect or pure state.
2. Ragatmika Bhakti
When Navadha Bhakti reaches its climax and a transcendental divine love begins to arise in the heart, then Ragatmika Bhakti begins to arise as a sympathetic state. In this state, the devotee gets the feeling of the power of his God.
When Ragatmika Bhakti comes to its final stage, then the devotee comes to its highest and final culmination. After coming to this stage, there is no duality or duality and the devotee and the Lord become one, that is, the devotee has the realization of the only Brahman.
Knowledge means knowing, understanding, experiencing, understanding, consciousness, cognition, learning, acquaintance, knowledge, understanding, understanding, perception. Knowing one’s own personality means getting acquainted with oneself. To know the nature of one’s soul and consciousness and one’s physical existence, that is, one’s body, and try to reach one’s soul. Until we do not understand our soul, we will not be able to know our body either.
There are four main principles of Jnana Yoga, which are as follows – Distinguishing between virtues and defects (discretion), sannyasa, self-sacrifice i.e. detachment (steadiness), six koshas (shatta possessions), constant efforts to attain one’s adoration. to do (mukukshtva)
- Distinguishing between merit and demerit (Vivek): Vivek is that form of knowledge, which helps us to choose the right path. What is right and what is inappropriate.
- Sannyas, self-sacrifice i.e. vairagya (stability): Vairagya means to free oneself internally by giving up all kinds of worldly pleasures or desire for wealth. All kinds of worldly pleasures are inexhaustible or untrue, hence they are meaningless.
In Jnana Yoga the devotee seeks the Eternal, the Supreme, the Unchangeable, God. All things in this world are non-existent. Hence there is a form of falsehood. But the divine soul, which is imperishable, eternal and unchangeable, is the reality. The soul is like the sky because the sky is always the sky and no one can do anything about it.
- Six koshas (Shata assets): There are 6 parts of this principle in Jnana Yoga –
1. To control the senses and the mind (shama).
2. Control over the senses and the mind (Dama).
3. To be firm, to be disciplined. Be patient in every difficulty and face them (Titiksha).
4. Having faith in holy scriptures, books and Guru’s words (Aastha).
5. Determining and having a purpose. Our expectations should be towards our goal, no matter what. No one is going to separate you from your goal (Solution).
6. To rise above the above things (Uparati).
- Continuous effort to attain one’s adoration (Mumukshtva): When there is a feeling of the presence of God in the heart and a strong desire to merge with God is awakened. Complete self-realization.
Self-realization means that we are not separate from God, but God and life are one. When a person becomes aware of this, then the doors of his intellect are opened and then he attains his real existence.